Most Apple computers produced are recycled internally. This affected both hardware and installed software on it.
It has always been so. The very first models of Apple computers, the Cupertino people created operating systems and applications for them. Technologies are developing very quickly, which forced the creation of new operating systems for almost every PC in the line.
Cupertinians wrote new systems from scratch, came up with graphical interfaces and identified the maximum number of iron products, after 2-3 years, when creating a new model, readers all from the beginning.
Everything has changed a lot in 1984when Steve Jobs introduced a line of computers Mac. Together with it, an operating system with a straightforward name was presented.system“, which after several years of evolution has become MacOS X.
To the point: How Mac OS X has changed in 22 years
The most significant cases that were developed in Cupertino are now being noted. Some of them preceded the same systemand some discover even compete up to recognition MacOS X.
A/ROSE. To install the system, it was necessary to purchase a PC expansion module
▶ Late 70s – mid 80s
A/ROSE (short for Apple real-time operating system environment) is one of the first systems to be formed, which began in Cupertino back in the late 70s.
The system was designed taking into account the cost of a computer Apple 2. The developers, fearing that the hardware stuffing of the new one would be insufficient for the comfortable operation of the computer, decided to install it on the expansion card.
So after the release of the Apple II, it was possible to install this operating system only with an expensive MCP expansion card. It did not come in a computer configuration, even if it was extremely difficult to find it for sale.
Another task of developing a system is called MR-DOS (Multitasking real-time distributed operating system), but Microsoft lawyers did not appreciate the joke (a reference to the name of the system MS-DOS) and forced the Cupertinos to change their name.
The system has not been widely adopted. Later it was built in another version of Mac OS as a system extension for working with network cards and protocols.
Apple DOS and ProDOS. The system was copied even in the USSR
▶ 1978 – 1993
Apple DOS (short for Operating system disk) was the main system for computers Apple 2. The absence of a graphical interface and low system requirements make it possible to use the system even on the weakest computer layout.
It was possible to work with Apple DOS directly from a floppy disk inserted into the drive. There are three versions of this system: DOS 3.1, DOS 3.2 and DOS 3.3. All prior releases are considered accepted builds.
The peak of OS values coincided with active sales of computers Apple 2. Users fell in love with the system for its relative ease of use and low system requirements. Enthusiasts release many clones of systems with improvements and fixes. So users got enhanced features, improved performance or support for peripheral peripherals.
One of these modifications will be found in the USSR. Application for the use of programmers from firms Cosmos Softand called the operating system Eagle & Space Soft QDOS 2.A. It received Russification and a large number of existing unsupported file types.
In 2013, on the occasion of the 35th anniversary of the Apple II computer, the source code for Apple DOS became public.
The logically observable system has become Apple ProDOS. The main difference was the appearance of graphical support with support for multi-window mode, which ran on top of a single-tasking disk discovery system.
ProDOS distributed in 8- and 16-bit versions and was distributed to all modifications of Apple II computers. Later on the base ProDOS a modified system was created HS/OSwhich, in terms of technical parameters, practically did not differ from the original.
Apple SOS. Stable OS, which had no luck with the computer
▶ 1980 – 1982
Apple SOS (short for Complex operating system) is a single-tasking single-user operating system that was developed specifically for a computer Apple III.
The system was produced with basic versions of the PC and could perform three main types of actions: working with files, working with the launch (computer) and launching programs.
OS like computer Apple III, were developed as a powerful business tool. One of the main representatives of interests was the simplicity and reliability of operation. So programmers discarded many minor components and did not implement some ideas that could affect the stability of the OS.
In the end, the system came out very simple, but the computer itself Apple III disappointed buyers. He had problems with overheating and the reliability of some components. Cupertino eventually corrected the remaining shortcomings, but the model’s reputation was already ruined.
So the computer had to be reduced from production, and with it to restore a stable and promising Apple SOS. Project Supervisor Steve Wozniak called the basis of the OS for microcomputers of his time.
Lisa OS. The first OS with a friendly GUI
▶ 1983 – 1986
A computer Apple Lisa is one of the products in the history of Apple. The experience of creating a graphical interface for the system was presented earlier, but with the release of this computer, Jobs wanted to turn the entire PC industry around.
Inspired excursion to Xerox PARK Steve realized that it was necessary to strive for a simple and understandable detection system. Xerox tested the graphical interface, but top managers did not imagine the future for this design.
Jobs agreed with the company on mutually beneficial management. Excursions for the Apple Lisa team with a demonstration of Xerox developments.
So all participants Lisa OS (Office system Liza) saw ideas and aspirations, subsequently inspired by the founder of Apple. Having finalized and improved them, the system interface turned out to be as close as possible to the modern desktop.
Then it’s really something revolutionary. User can click shortcuts to navigate to different drives and folders, opening File Explorer Seeker, manage windows. For the first time, a version of the menu appeared, which became an unexpected feature of hacking Apple systems, and still remains on the most recent update of macOS.
Support for constant multitasking and file swapping. A solid set of pre-installed software was produced with it: LisaWrite, LisaCalc, LisaDraw, LisaGraph, LisaProject, LisaList and LisaTerminal. This was enough for most users of that time to start working on the computer without looking for additional applications.
Although the OS itself was extremely revolutionary for its time, the computer was sold at the same time because of the extremely high price.
Jobs was later suspended from work on Apple Lisa and met over the first generation Mac. As you already know, this product is laid on Lisa’s shoulder blade and has come to be seen by Apple as a blueprint for sustainable software and hardware development.
A/UX. Apple’s first UNIX-based system
▶ 1988 – 1995
A/UX (short for Apple Unix) became the first in the Apple system based on UNIX. It was developed for the platform m68k. The system can be installed on computers Apple Lisa/Lisa 2, Macintosh/Macintosh SE/Macintosh IIfirst generation powerbook.
At the core A/UX warehouse UNIX System V version 2.2 and BSD version 4.2. Shell support system System 7 and a set of sketches POSIXand in the second version protocol support was added TCP/IP.
All this is to promote Apple computers in the corporate and government segments. The company managed to get several lucrative contracts for the supply of computers with A/UX on board for US federal organizations.
The first version of the system appeared in the public domain in 1988, and updates were released until about 1995. Even then, useful applications that are familiar today appeared in sensations. Seeker and command line CommandShell.
For a long time, many third-party applications do not support the GUI System 7 and to work with them, they usually switch to command line mode. Later, the situation changed, and the OS itself received two major updates.
Users have tried this system for easy installation, a year of required technical support, and easy-to-follow GUI help.
Rhapsody. The system became the progenitor of Mac OS X Server
▶ 1996 – 1999
Rhapsody – this operating system was developed in the period between the acquisition by the Cupertinos of the company Next and announcement MacOS X.
OS application was designed to work in the architecture x86 and Powerful Macintosh. The plan was to release a powerful framework so that developers of Rhapsody applications could quickly rebuild the utility for Windows. However, these ideas were soon abandoned.
In 1997, Rhapsody was demonstrated at a conference MacWorld Exhibition in San Francisco and then WWDC. Developers received test versions of the system for creation and adaptation.
However, the parallel network was already working on MacOS X and the main resources were directed to it. Release Rhapsody postponed several times at one of the conferences Steve Jobs spoke about the reorganization of the system and its transformation into Mac OS X Server. There was no so-called “home” version of the release system.
However, parts of the source code Rhapsody used when creating MacOS X.
Darwin. It was developed by Steve Jobs, but not at Apple, but at NeXT
▶ 2000 – 2006
Darwin is an open Apple system that maintains a set of presets POSIX and compatibility with distant population UNIX (SUSv3).
Part of the system code, of course, in Apple, but the basic principles of work were used by the company. Nextwhich was absorbed by Apple after the return Steve Jobs. Darwin’s system is made up of component parts The next step and FreeBSD.
The operating system was freely distributed under Apple’s public source code license. Installation was possible on computers with architecture PowerPC, Intel x86 as well as on devices with 32- and 64-bit ARM processors.
The system was built around a hybrid XNU kernel and not hosted in a UNIX-like system, yet UNIX application developers could quickly rebuild their software for Darwin without changing the source code.
Several years of project support at Apple, thanks to public source code, supported by enthusiasts and manufacturers. Exceptionally implemented projects OpenDarwin and PureDarwin.
OpenDarwin as a testing ground for testing external ideas and chips in the evaluation of Apple’s activities. The community was active until 2006.
PureDarwin is a researcher on a mass project whose goal was to create and maintain up to date a boot image for installing the system.
Later, the OS turned into a freely distributed analogues with Linux distributions. GNU-Darwin.
It is curious that some modules and components of the system later migrated to MacOS Xthe kernel code is still available on GitHub.
Such different and original OSes as a result, the Cupertino team came to popular lines system/Mac OS X/macOSToday we presented one of the best desktop systems on the market.
Source: Iphones RU