It has recently been discovered that people with large noses may have inherited them from Neanderthals. But they are not exceptional. One way or another, we are all a little Neanderthal. In fact, it is believed that a person in Europe or America from 2% to 4% DNA inherited from these hominids.

Far beyond the nose, we received from them both the necessary gifts for our survival, and some curses. For example, we were given the immune system stronger, but also more likely to develop clots. you had human papillomavirus Always? It’s their fault. you’re hooked on tobacco? These are also Neanderthals.

In general, our DNA retains some of its heritage; but, even if it seems bad to us, the truth is that positive balance. Otherwise, we wouldn’t have kept him with us for so long.

you have a neanderthal nose

A study recently published in Communication biology has been carried out since persons of mixed European, Amerindian and African ancestrywhose genome was compared with other studies of the human and Neanderthal genomes.

Thus, it was found that several genes associated with the shape of the face come from love relationships between Neanderthals and humans. Particularly striking was ATF3 gene, is very common in people of Indian origin. It is known that the main function of this gene is the regeneration of nervous tissue. However, its expression is also known to be regulated by another gene that may affect the face. That is, the gene that turns ATF3 on or off is involved in the face shape of those who have it in their genome. And, in particular, there seems to be a definite connection with nose.

neanderthal nose
Dr. Kaustubh Adhikari, UCL

The study also shows that this gene was present in the genome of Neanderthals, in which higher noses than people. That is, from the tip of the nose to the birth of the nasal septum, there was more space. This was beneficial as it helped them regulate the temperature and humidity of the air they breathed. That is why this gene has continued to be selected from generation to generation and is still present in some people.

as addicted as they are

In 2016, a group of researchers from Vanderbilt University analyzed the Neanderthal genome in a group of adult Europeans and compared the results with their own. medical history. So they found links between certain genes and conditions that we seem to inherit from these hominins.

But it’s not just about illness. They also saw this lineage in some of the genes associated with dependence on substances such as nicotineto tobacco. And this was not the only neurological consequence. They also saw Neanderthal variants associated with depression.

More diseases, but better protection

When our ancestors had sex with Neanderthals, they kept as a gift human papillomavirus, which to this day continues to be transmitted sexually.

In fact, before the advent of vaccines, it was estimated that over 90% of the population had been exposed to this virus at some point. In the worst cases, it can cause cancer, but almost always the immune system.

And the good news is that we also inherited a very well-prepared immune system from the Neanderthals. There are many studies that prove this, the most recent being related to COVID-19. In particular, some genes on chromosome 12 inherited from Neanderthals have been observed to contribute to the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. They do it to the point where they can reduce the likelihood of developing the disease by 22%. They gave us diseases, as well as weapons to fight both those and those that we eventually received ourselves.

Of course, a better equipped immune system also means more allergiesbecause it’s still a defensive response against the wrong enemy. So if you are very allergic, that is also your fault. I Neanderthal.

pollen allergy, delay sneezing

More clots but less bleeding

Studies of the Neanderthal and human genomes show that we also inherited a higher likelihood of developing blood clots from them. It’s connected with hypercoagulation that, if it has been so preserved, it must also have advantages.

For this reason, scientists believe that it helped Neanderthals avoid bleeding and get rid of certain parasites.

Neanderthal skin

We also inherited from the Neanderthals thicker skin and hairwith the presence keratin. It was also chosen because it helped people live in cold climates and resist glaciation. It was very profitable and has survived to this day.

And it is that while it may seem insulting to us if they call us Neanderthals, they are also part of us. In good and in bad. In health and disease. Until evolution do us part.

Source: Hiper Textual

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